Choro is a Brazilian music style, very popular in the 1920s and 1930s, but still popular nowadays. This blog wants to share our passion for this music and its musicians like Pixinguinha, Jacob do Bandolim and Garoto, but also the contemporary generation of young talented musicans like Yamandú Costa.
Monday, May 25, 2015
Homenagem à Chiquinha Gonzaga
Chiquinha Gonzaga (1877)
Chiquinha Gonzaga(1847-1935) is considered the first important female composer and performer of popular music in Brazil. She was born as an illegitimate child, but fortunately her farther recognized her as his own and provided her with an education that included musical training. She participated in piano recitals throughout her youth and demonstrated execeptional skill. Her desire at a young age to pursue music professionally, however, was abandoned by her family. At age 13 she was forced into an arranged marriage but by 18 had already left her husbund to become a single mother, who played the piano to support her children. As a result of this she was declared dead by her former family! However, over time Chiquinha succeeded in making a living and a name for herself as a performer, composer and piano teacher.
Gonzaga was the first female to be allowed attending the social and musical fraternity of choro musicians, helped by her friend Joaquin Calado-the first composer of music in the choro style. Chiquinha started composing in the choro style too and had success with the piece "Corta-jaca" from 1897. Later she would be engaged in composing and arranging music for the popular theater. She was also a dedicated participant in the abolition movement and engaged further in the protection of authors' and composers' rights. By the time of her death in 1935, her musical works included a great number of theater pieces as well as sacred music, besides popular music including maxixes, marches and choros. Her legacy as an important composer of Brazilian popular music continues today. - The official website dedicated to the legacy of Chiquinha Gonzaga (in Portuguese only) is accessiblehereand the digital archive of Gonzaga's compositions is accessiblehere
This year it has been 80 years since Chiquinha Gonzaga's passing, and her life story has been dramatized in a TV production in Brazil to commenmorate her importance in the nation's music and culture. Among other initiatives to commenmorate Chiquinha Gonzaga, a new CD byConjunto Subindo a Ladeirapaying tribute to Gonzaga's music has been released recently and is presented here.
The new CD by Conjunto Subindo a Ladeira
The CD has twelve tracks and the music is excellently performed byConjunto Subindo a Ladeira.The trio comprisesAndré Ribeiro(bandolim), Priscila Matos(piano)andRoberto Amaral(pandeiro). The CD is the trio's second release - the first was issued in 2012 titled De Três em Três (- earlier mentionedhere).
Conjunto Subindo a Ladeira, l-r: Roberto Amarel, Priscila Matos, André Ribeiro
Chiquinha Gonzaga's music is influenced by both European popular styles such as polka, mazurka and waltz as well as tango, lundu and maxixe a.o., and the various styles reflected in her work as a composer characterize her as a major transitional figure pioneering and helping to shape the direction of a genuine Brazilian music which - together with the compositions byErnesto Nazareth- may be considered the roots of choro. Conjunto Subindo a Ladeirahas succeeded in capturing the atmosphere and expression of Gonzaga's music in a contemporary setting. The rhythmic pulse of the featured pieces at the CD is heavily influenced by the habanera and syncopation, which provides the musical themes from a long gone romantic 'belle epoche' a contemporary appeal - the music of Chiquinha Gonzaga is still able to seduce the attentive listener when performed by skilled musicians like Conjunto Subindo a Ladeira. - A short presentation of the contained music at the CD has been uploaded at YouTube and is inserted here
Chiquinha Gonzagawas a piano player and used the piano to write famous pieces like 'Corta-jaca' - now a standard of the choro repertoire - here performed in its first presentation on record by Grupo Chiquinha Gonzaga
The piano player of Conjunto Subindo a Ladeira,Priscila Matos, has uploaded some examples of her interpretation of Gonzaga's pieces, which I'll insert below. - Here is first Priscila Matos' version of 'Corta-jaca', also known as 'Gaucho'
Chiquinha Gonzaga had her first public success with a composition titled 'Atraente', a polka/choro from 1877 also adopted by the choro standard book, here performed by Priscila Matos
To end this, here is Priscila Matos' version of Chiquinha Gonzaga's maxixe 'Mulher Homem', recorded at the session featured at the new CD by Conjunto Subindo a Ladeira
The CDHomenagem à Chiquinha GonzagabyConjunto Subindo a Ladeirais highly recommend and is available for purchase as mp3 download from Amazon,here
CD front: Choro Nórdica (Tresafinado Records, T1403 - Gateway Music)
The Danish-Brazilian trioTresafinadofrom Copenhagen - consisting of flautistPia Kaufmanas, guitaristTorsten Borbye Nielsen, and the Brazilian drummer and percussionist,Afonso Corrêa- was established 1998. Tresafinado has performed with a repertoire based on the Spanish and South-American music tradition and has also co-operated with Danish choir ensembles performing religious music. Tresafinado's first two CD recodings reflected the trio's engagement in the mentioned fields of music. The third CD was recorded in Rio de Janeiro 2010 and showcasted the trio's devotion to the Brazilian choro, released 2011 with the title 'Lúdico'and featuring four acknowledged musicians from Rio's choro community: Mauricio Carrilho (violão 7 cordas), Pedro Aragão (bandolim), Luciana Rabello (cavaquinho), and Nailor Proveta (clarinet). The 'Lúdico' CD mainly contained material in the choro genre composed by Tresafinado's guitarist, Torsten Borbye Nielsen. As mentioned, the CD was released 2011 and in 2012 Tresafinado arranged a concert tour of Denmark together with the four mentioned Brazilian guest musicians presenting the material recorded at the 'Lúdico' CD. Both the CD and a broadcasted concert from the tour have earlier been reviewed at this blog (- you may look up both reviews following this link,here). - Earlier this month Tresafinado released the trio's fourth CD titled 'Choro Nórdica', a follow-up of the successful Lúdico' CD.
l-r: front row: Pedro Aragão, Torsten Borbye Nielsen, Luciana Rabello, Nailor Proveta - back row: Afonso Corrêa, Pia Kaufmanas, Mauricio Carrilho
The new CD by Tresafinado,'Choro Nórdica', was recorded 2012-2014 in Copenhagen and continues the co-operation with the four mentioned Brazilian musicians in five tracks that were recorded during the concert tour of Denmark in 2012, the remaining seven tracks are recorded in 2014 and are by Tresafinado alone including two tracks in a solo or duet setting. The repertoire of the CD includes seven choro compositions by guitarist Torsten Borbye Nielsen, five of them in arrangements for the extended Tresafinado with Brazilian guest musicians, the remaining two are two waltzes, 'Valsa singela' by the trio, and 'Garda', a solo piece for guitar performed by Borbye Nielsen. Further there are included two compositions by Danish jazz pianist Thomas Clausen,'Ciao Brasil' and 'Hope for Malala', in arrangements by Tresafinado and there is a version of Brazilian accordeonist Chico Chagas' 'Pra Paulo' by the trio. Finally, a choro by Mauricio Carrilho dedicated to flautist Kaufmanas, 'Choro pra Pia' and a duet version of Pixinguinha's 'Lamentos' in an arrangement by Brazilian guitarist Marco Pereira adapted by Tresafinado and here performed by Kaufmanas and Borbye Nielsen. - As was the case with the 'Lúdico' CD, the new CD by Tresafinado provides excellent arrangements and performance at a high artistic level, the compositions by Borbye Nielsen fit perfectly in a contemporary context of choro interpretation and the performance by all involved leaves a most pleasant impression of a genuine Brazilian music with a touch of Scandinavian 'coolness' added to the warmth of southern climes. I highly recommend the CD as an example of an up to date choro release and further as yet another successful exchange of ideas between an European and South American music tradition, every track is extremely well performed and in supreme audio - a must have for all interested in contemporary choro tradition.
The 'Choro Nórdica'CD is available by contacting Tresafinado's web,hereor as download from iTunes,here- Audio clips available at Tresafinado's web and you may listen to the CD in streaming audio at Spotify.
On the 23rd of April it is 118 years since the birth ofPixinguinha.During the past 15 years this date has been officially celebrated in Brazil asDia Nacional do Choroin honor of Pixinguinha and his importance for choro and Brazilian music. Here I will follow this tradition and commemorate Pixinguinha's genius by inserting some examples of his music. And why not start with a birthday tune composed by the master and here performed by Jacob do Bandolim- TEU ANIVERSÁRIO
This choro by Pixinguinha is the same tune asRECORDANDO, which Pixinguinha recorded for Odeon in 1934
The peak period of Pixinguinha's long career probably was during his cooperation withBenedito Lacerdain the 1940s. Fact is that many of the classic choros by Pixinguinha/Lacerda from this period are still performed today, a.o.INGêNUO
In a TV show from 1997Época de Ouroperformed INGêNUOa.o. featuringRonaldo do Bandolimplaying the melody
1997 was the centennial of Pixinguinha's birth that was celebrated all over Brazil in various events. A TV transmited concert from one of these celebrations has been uploaded in a complete version at YouTube and is inserted here to mark the anniversary ofPixinguinha and Choro Day- sit back and enjoy the show
Thanks to globalization and the internet knowledge about choro music has spread outside Brazil during the past fifteen years. Today there are musicians all over the world playing choro inspired by the great Brazilian performers of the past and present. Here I like to introduce a Danish choro ensemble from Copenhagen-Choro Vivothat has just released a debut CD.
Martin Heap, 7 string guitar, cavaquinho
Choro Vivowas formed by Martin Heap in January 2010.Martin Heap(b.1974) has studied guitar at The Royal Danish Academy of Music in Copenhagen and graduated in 2003. In 2001 he visited Rio de Janeiro for the first time and was inspired to explore and play choro. As a result, he stayed in Rio from 2004 to 2007 and studied with the renowned choro guitarist Mauricio Carrilhoand was introduced to the Cariocan choro community. In 2005 Martin Heap produced a CD featuring a choro ensemble namedChoro Brasil Scandinaviathat included himself and another Scandinavian guitarist besides three well known Brazilian musicians. The CD and the ensemble was presented in live performance in Copenhagen, July 2005 (- you can read more about Choro Brasil Scandinavia following thislink). Thanks to his many contacts in Brazil Martin Heap has organized a pioneering work in Denmark to introduce choro to the public, and his enthusiasm and initiative has so far also resulted in the formation of the trioChoro Vivoin 2010. The original formation of the trio comprised violinist Alexander Kraglund (b. 1985) and guitarist Bjarke Mulder (b. 1980) besides Martin Heap on 7 string guitar and cavaquinho. Today Choro Vivo has two new members replacing Kraglund and Mulder.
Martin Buono, guitar
Martin Buono(b.1986) has studied classical guitar at The Royal Danish Academy of Music in Copenhagen and graduated as soloist in 2014. He is the one part of the prizewinning Copenhagen Guitar Duo excelling in the classical guitar repertoire. Martin Buono has also studied flamenco guitar in Spain and is involved in other music projects besides Choro Vivo, learn more at his official website,here
Marco Spallanzani, bandolim
Marco Spallanzaniis from Modena, Italy, but has been living in Copenhagen since 1985. He has studied guitar at the rhythmic Music Conservatory in Copenhagen and graduated 1992.Besides playing guitar Marco Spallanzani is a composer, arranger and tutor, he also plays other string instruments than guitar and has specialized in playing bandolim in Choro Vivo. Learn more about his career and other projects at the official website,here
Choro Vivo, CD front (Gateway Music, 2015)
The debut CD of Choro Vivo was recorded last year and released earlier this month by Gateway Music in a downloadable version,hereand is also available in streaming audio at the website of Choro Vivo. The CD has nine tracks, the repertoire is devoted to well known classic choro compositions in arrangements by Choro Vivo. Some tracks have guest appearance by accordionistFransesco Cali, percussionist Afonso Corrêa and Brazilian guitarist Glauber Seixas.
Choro Vivo with guest performers
The first track, 'Odeon' (Ernesto Nazareth), is the trio's interpretation of the well known tune and showcasting the bandolim as lead voice. Next tune is Pixinguinha's 'Um A Zero' featuring the trio extended with accordionist Francesco Cali, percussionist Afonso Corrêa and Glauber Seixas on 7 string guitar - the tune has great playing by all including solo exchange and improvisation by Spallanzani's bandolim and Cali's accordion. Then follows Anacleto de Medeira's 'Yara' by the trio showcasting Martin Heap on the cavaquinho as solo voice, Martin Buono on guitar and Glauber Seixas on 7 string guitar replacing Spallanzani. Next, two more classics by Pixinguinha, 'Os Oitos Batutas' and 'Naquele Tempo' - the last mentioned extended with Cali on accordion, while 'Os Oitos Batutas' adds Corrêa on percussion. A choro by Paulinho da Viola influenced by the guitar style of Canhoto da Paraíba, 'Rosinha, essa Menina' is next featuring great playing by Martin Buono and exemplary support by Heap and Spallanzani, and this is followed by an excellent arrangenment and reading of Villa-Lobos' 'Mazurka-Choro' by the trio. The two remaining tracks are devoted to a reading of Jacob do Bandolim's 'Feia' and E.Nazareth's 'Travesso' - the last mentioned has also been recorded in a live presentation uploaded at YouTube and is inserted below to give you an impression of Choro Vivo in performance.
It's a thrill to learn that choro music is taken good care of and presented with due respect to and affirmative understanding of the Brazilian tradition byChoro Vivo- the future of choro in Denmark looks bright with the release of the trio's debut CD, definitly recommended!
The New CD byYamandú Costa- Tocata À Amizade(Biscoito Fino) is a splendid example of a deliberate smoothing of the boundaries between classical art music and popular tradition. Generally, in the Western tradition erudite musical composition has enjoyed primacy of popular traditions, while it has not been pronounced in Brazilian music culture.Among other aspects, this means that improvisation or free musical expression has been severely limited within the framework of traditonel Western classical art music, although previously rudiments to consider improvisation as an essential aspect of musical expression have been applied to sudden musical forms. These include for the type of compositions, which are known as toccatas.
Sheet book front
The encyclopedia definiton of a toccata reads:Toccata(from Italian toccare, "to touch") is a virtuoso piece of music typically for a keyboard or plucked string instrument featuring fast-moving, lightly fingered or otherwise virtuosic passages or sections, with or without imitative or fugal interludes, generally emphasizing the dexterity of the performer's fingers.This msusical form has been developed since the late Renaissance and its best known example probably is J.S. Bach's Toccata and Fugue in D Minor (BWV 565). His toccatas for organ are improvisatory compositions, and are often followed by an independent fugue movement. You can read more about this musical form and are further able to listen to examples,here
CD front: Tocata À Amizade (Illustration by Elifas Andreato)
According to the info at the Biscoito Fino website, the new CD by Yamandú Costa pays tribute not only to musicians he admires, but also to the art of playing an instrument. Quote: "We, who play popular music, have this custom of meetings, evening parties, in which we exchange information, learn new songs. In this CD I wanted to make an allusion to this very common and very natural practice among us." The idea of recording the CD came from an invitation that Yamandú received from the Louvre Museum Auditorium in Paris. "They ordered me a piece, I wanted to show some of the popular music of Brazil, so I wrote the suite “Impressões brasileiras”, for about four years." The suite opens the CD and consists of four parts: 1-Choro-tango, 2-Valsa, 3-Frevo-canção and 4-Baionga. The suite is followed by two new compositions by Yamandú: Negra Baiarina and Boa Viagem, both are examples of informal toccatas. Next follow two compositions paying tribute to two major figures in Brazilian guitar tradition, Pedra do Leme by Raphael Rabello/Toquinho and Graúna by João Pernambuco. The CD closes with a reading and interpretation of Radamés Gnatalli's 'Suite Retratos' in four parts, named after the composers in Brazilian tradition each of them portrays: Pixinguinha - Ernesto Nazareth - Anacleto de Medeiros - Chiquinha Gonzaga. Yamandú explains: "In my view, this cousin of Radames' work perfectly portrays the dialogue between schools of classical music and popular. (...) We rehearsed a lot to get this much free result that is on the disc." The CD thus underlines the dialogue between classical and popular music in Brazilian tradition, and the titleTocata À Amizadefurther points to the fact that this dialogue is not with the intention of provoking a polite audience, but to emphasize the friendship between two equal musical expressions and further the friendship between the musicians who perform the music at the CD.In truth, a musical project based on fixed frames which allow for free expression and improviasation, a well known and respected approach within choro music and related, popular Brazilian genres.
Yamandú Costa Quartet in performance (photo by Paulo Cartolano)
All tracks of the CD were recorded in a quartet setting, and Yamandú (violão de 7 cordas de naylon) brings together musicians Rogerio Caetano(violão 7 cordas de aço),Luis Barcelos(bandolim de 10 cordas and arrangements of “Suite Impressões brasileiras” ) andAlessandro Bebê Krameron accordion. - To give you an impression of the music featured at the CD, I'll insert some uploaded examples from previously recorded live performance by the quartet. Here is first a live presentation of Radamés Gnatalli's 4º movimento Retratos (Chiquinha Gonzaga) from the Suite Retratos
Next, here is a presentation by Yamandú Costa quartet of João Pernambuco's Graúna
Finally, to end this presentation of Yamandú Costa's new CD, here is the quartet performing Pedra do Leme by Raphael Rabello/Toquinho
TheTocata À AmizadeCD is available for purchase as mp3 downloads at Amazon,here, and iTunes,here
Danilo Brito - New CD By Bandolinista Extraordinaire
The excellent bandolinista,Danilo Brito, has released a new CD last November. The CD has no title, but contains nine pieces of music all composed by Danilo Brito. He is accompanied by a traditional regional ensemble which comprises Carlos Moura (violão 7 cordas), Wesley Vasconcelos (violão), Lucas Arantes (cavaquinho), Roberto Figueroa (pandeiro) and there is a guest appearance by André Mehmari (piano) in the last track. The repertoire of the disc are compositions in the classic choro style and every track is a listening delight performed by excellent and very skilled musicians. Danilo Brito stands out as a magnificent soloist mastering his instrument with impeccable technique, and his great playing throughout mixes speed, tone and expression with a marvellous result. The CD is a superior example of the virtuosity of a great artist, highly recommended!
CD-front: Danilo Brito, Orpheu Music, Orpheu 05
Further info on the CD is availablehereand it may be purchasedhere. You also have the opportunity to listen to all tracks in full length in streaming audio at Sound Cloud,here.
Below I'll insert some uploaded YouTube videos presenting some of the music recorded at the CD. Here is first Danilo Brito and his regional from the release promotion of the CD playing the tune 'Foi Ontem'
From the same promotion presentation, here is Danilo Brito and ensemble playing 'Pega Ratáo'
Danilo Brito also shows off his skills at the violão tenor, here's an example recorded at the mentioned CD, the tune is titled 'Generoso'
To end this small presentation of the music at Danilo Brito's new CD, here is a live performance of the waltz titled 'Vermelha' in a duo setting
Garoto(Anibal Augusto Sardinha, 1915-55) is deservedly hailed as a Brazilian master of several plucked instruments such as cavaquinho, bandolim, violão tenor, violão (conventional six string guitar), banjo, electric guitar and the 'guitarra havaiana'. Here I'll put some focus on Garoto as a player of the 'guitarra havaiana' (=lap steel guitar).
Acoustic lap steel guitar
The 'guitarra havaiana' or lap steel guitar was developed in Hawaii in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, it is usually positioned horizontally and the strings are plucked with one hand, while the other hand changes the pitch of one or more strings with the use of a bar or slide called a steel (generally made of metal, but also of glass or other materials).
The technique was invented and popularized in Hawaii. Thus, the lap steel guitar is sometimes known as the Hawaiian guitar, particularly in documents from the early 20th century. Early lap steel guitars were conventional guitars with steel strings modified by raising both the bridge and head nut. This type of guitar is claimed to have been invented in about 1889 by Joseph Kekuku in Hawaii. The type of slide called a steel which gives the technique its name was probably originally made of steel, or the name may come from the legend that the first steel was a railroad track.
The Rickenbacker 'frying pan'
The lap steel typically has 6 strings and is tuned to either standard guitar tuning, or an open chord. It differs from a conventional guitar in having a higher action. The electric version of a lap steel guitar was invented around 1930. The Rickenbacker'frying pan', an electric lap steel guitar produced from 1931 to 1939, was the first commercially successful solid body electric guitar.
Anibal Augusto Sardinha, Garoto
It is known that Garoto had his debut playing banjo, but he soon added several other plucked instruments to the inventory of instruments he mastered. In the late 1920s his idol and mentor was Zezinho (José Patrocinio de Oliveira,later known as Zé Carioca, 1904-1987), who also was a master of several plucked instruments. Zezinho had accompanied João Pernambuco in the famous recordings by João for the Columbia label, and Zezinho was one of the first to introduce the 'guitarra havaiana' in Brazil and also to record on this instrument. Garoto may have been introduced to the instrument by Zezinho and also been taught the basics from him. Around 1936 Garoto teamed with Aymoré in a duo to accompany singer Silvio Caldas and other popular artists of the time, and in 1936 Garoto also made his first registered record playing the 'guitarra havaiana' accompanied by Aymoré and Carlinhos on conventional guitars. The music is a choro titled 'Dolente' composed by Garoto
In the same year Garoto and Aymoré became staff musicians at Rádio Mayrink Veiga in Rio de Janeiro, and there they worked together with Gastão Bueno Lobo and Laurindo Almeida in an ensemble named Conjunto Havaiano, which aired live performances of popular music played 'hawaiian' style. Unfortunately, no recorded evidence of these live shots seems to have been recorded and saved.
Carolina Cardoso Menezes
In 1942 Garoto teamed with piano playerCarolina Cardoso Menezesto record for the Victor label, between July 1942 and August 1944 they recorded at least 12 sides that became popular and since have been considered the best known work of Garoto playing the 'guitarra havaiana'. On these sides Garoto has switched to the electric lap steel, and below I'll insert some examples of the music from these recordings, which have been uploaded at YouTube. - From the first session on July 31th 1942 the duo recorded Garoto's choro 'Amoroso'
On January 12th 1943 Carolina Cardoso Menezes and Garoto recorded 'Tico tico no fubá', where Garoto also plays the violão tenor
At the same session the duo also recorded 'Carinhoso' - here played faster than usual and with a samba rhythm
When I started listening to the huge recorded output featuring Garoto, the above examples became some of my favorite recordings at once, they still are and for me they represent some of the best popular interpretation of choro although played on an instrument not usually associated with choro - the lap steel guitar. Anyway, great stuff that should be reissued in a proper format, I think.
Feliz Natal & Feliz Ano Novo 2015/ A Merry Christmas & A Happy New Year 2015!